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ville abandoned Isle aux Noix after a short siege, and without further opposition Haviland arrived on the south shore of the St. Lawrence opposite Montreal early in September.

Capitulation.—The French force now consisted almost exclusively of regulars, hemmed in on the Island of Montreal. The Canadians had been kept in ignorance until the previous year of the desperate condition of the colony. They had responded with alacrity to the call to gather for the defence of Quebec ; but Montcalm's defensive attitude, and the lack of provisions toward the close of the siege, had tended to discourage them, and as the weeks wore on they had deserted in ever-increasing numbers. With opening spring Ste. Foye had restored their confidence, but as the British armies closed in on Montreal they again lost hope and dispersed to their homes. Many of the regular troops caught the infection and deserted, particularly those known as colony troops, who had come out expecting to settle in Canada when discharged from service. So it was that when, on the 8th of September, de Vaudreuil capitulated to Amherst the defending force scarcely exceeded 2,400 men. By the capitulation, de Vaudreuil gave up to the British the whole of Canada. To the Canadians the same protection to person, property and religion was accorded as when Quebec was taken. By the Treaty of Paris (1763), which closed the Seven Years' War, Great Britain was con-firmed in her possession, and Canada has ever since remained a British colony.


British Government on the St. Lawrence.—After the capitulation at Montreal, Great Britain held Canada by purely military rule (regne militaire) until peace in Europe should determine her ultimate destiny. Amherst, as commander-in-chief of the British forces in America, was the official head of Canada during this period, with headquarters at New York. Canada was divided into three military governments—Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal—with General James Murray, Colonel Ralph Burton, and General Thomas Gage as their respective heads.

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