aux Noix on the Richelieu, determined to hold the island to the last. Amherst did not reach him. The British general spent the summer in repairing Fort Ticonderoga (as the English named Fort Carillon), in erecting a strong fort at Crown Point, in opening roads along the lake all the way to Fort William Henry, and in building vessels to overcome the small French flotilla which guarded the approach to the outlet of Lake Champlain. When this last task was ended and the opposing vessels were destroyed, it was too late in the season to risk any further advance. The army went into winter-quarters, and a messenger was sent to apprise Wolfe before Quebec that he need look for no assistance from Amherst in the attack upon that famous fortress.
The Defences of Quebec.—Montcalm had taken vigorous measures for the defence of Quebec. The militia were ordered out to the last man, and bravely and cheerfully they responded to the call. Regulars and militia included, Montcalm had an army of fourteen thousand men encamped behind a line of earthworks which stretched from the St. Charles River to the falls of the Montmorency. There was little fear of a direct attack from the St. Lawrence upon the town itself ; for, from the river's edge to the topmost summit of Cape Diamond, Quebec bristled with artillery, and strong walls, strongly manned, barred all access in that direction. The Chevalier de Rauiezay was in command of the garrison, which numbered between one and two thousand men. Above the town stretched for miles a line of precipitous cliffs, broken, eight miles from Quebec, by a deep ravine, commanded by batteries planted on Cap Rouge. Where Montcalm's army lay, facing the river from the meadows of the St. Charles, was apparently the only possible landing place, and here every pre-caution was taken. To the east the ground rose again, fronting the river with steep declivities to where the chasm of the Montmorency formed a natural barrier against attack.
Wolfe's Arrival—Montcalm's Tactics.—The fleet which bore Wolfe and his army reached the Island of Orleans toward the end of June. The troops were landed upon the western point of the island. In full view, across the basin of Quebec, was the fortress they had come to capture, and Wolfe saw at once that he had a difficult task before him. His land force amounted to less than nine thousand men, but they were, as he himself afterwards