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70   HISTORY OF CANADA.

pitably entertained, but the French commandant, of course, declined to comply with the demand made upon him. Washington was now placed in command of the force which Dinwiddie sent in 1754 to enforce compliance. The French had anticipated his action, and at the junction of the Alleghany and the Monongahela, where Pittsburg now stands, they had built and garris-ned a fort which they called Fort Duquesne. Washington, finding his force too small for an attack, entrenched himself at a placo which he called Fort Necessity, but was obliged to surrender to the superior force of the French. He was allowed to march out with the honors of war, and at once withdrew to the eastern side of the mountains.

"A Startling Programme."—When word reached England of the disaster at Fort Necessity, the British parliament voted liberal supplies for America. Major-General Braddock was sent to take command of the forces there, which were now reinforced by about 1,400 regular troops. After Braddock's arrival (1755), a council was held at Alexandria at which were present the governors of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and North Carolina. What has been described as a somewhat startling programme for a time of peace was there decided on. Braddock was to march on Fort Duquesne and drive the French from the Ohio valley ; Shirley, of Massachusetts, was to lead an expedition against Fort Niagara ; William Johnson was to take Crown Point and secure control of Lake Champlain ; while, in Acadia, Monckton was to attack the French position at Fort Beausejour. These movements they justified on the grimnd that the places to be attacked were all on British ground.

Braddock's Defeat.—Braddock's campaign was a disastrous failure. There was much delay in getting off, owing to the want of wagons to transport the artillery and supplies. The total force which at length started on the long march over the mountains was about 2,200 men. The difficulties of the way considered, the march was made quickly and in good order. On the 9th of July Braddock was on the banks of the Monongahela, within a few miles of Fort Duquesne, when suddenly a force of French and Indians, numbering in all about nine hundred, attacked the British column. Beaujeu, who led the attack, fell at the first fire, and the British pushed forward with a cheer as the enemy in front disappeared. Their assailants, however, had merely spread


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