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68   HISTORY OF CANADA.

next French expedition came. As it was, transient traders were for some time the only rivals of the French.

Halifax Founded, 1749.-Roused to action by Shirley's reiterated appeals, the British ministry at length decided to plant a British settlement in Nova Scotia as an offset to Louisbourg, as well as a check upon the Acadians. The founding of Halifax (July, 17 49) was a state enterprise, and the first settlers were largely disbanded soldiers. Over 2,500 (men, women and children) were induced to cast in their lot with this first British-Canadian colony. They were promised a free passage, free land, one year's maintenance, and a government like that of the other "plantations" in America. Edward Cornwallis, whom Wolfe describes as "a man of approved courage and fidelity," accompanied the settlers as governor of Nova Scotia. Before writer all were roughly housed, and by the year 1752 Halifax was a flourishing town of about four thousand inhabitants. About the same time nearly two thousand Germans were settled to the west of Halifax, and the county of Lunenburg now contains many of their descendants.

The Aeadians.—The Acadians at this time numbered about nine thousand, living along the Annapolis valley, around the shores of the Basin of Minas, and at the head of Chignecto Bay. Cornwallis now called upon them to take an oath of unconditional allegiance to King George. Jonquiere, who became governor of New France in 1749, used all his influence to prevent the Acadians from becoming British subjects. With his approval, a vigorous effort was put forth to induce them to migrate to the north shore of the Bay of Fundy or to Isle St. Jean. The effort was only partially successful, for in 1754 there were still six thousand Acadians to the south of the isthmus. The Abbe Le Loutre, missionary to the Micmacs, was the most active agent in carrying out these instructions. He (lid not scruple to threaten that he would let loose his Indian converts upon the Acadians should they accede to the demands of the British. We can understand, therefore, how, under such ever-present influence, the simple peasants hesitated to take the oath of allegiance.

At a saw-mill near Halifax four men were killed at their work by Micmacs. This, following other outrages upon the British settlers, determined the governor and his council to insist upon nothing less than an unconditional oath. Other measures were


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