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64   HISTORY OF CANADA.

to Admiral Warren that his fleet should co-operate in the attack. The expedition, therefore, waited for hint at Canso, Pepperrell utilizing the time drilling his awkward squads on shore.

The Fortress Taken.—Late in April, 1745, the united forces appeared off Louisbourg, which was defended by about two thou-sand regulars. The fleet at once proceeded to blockade the harbor, while the New Englanders landed and laid siege to the town. For nearly seven weeks the siege continued. The attacking forces gradually acquired discipline and drew in upon the defences of the place, while Warren kept watch outside the harbor, to cut off any succor which France might send to the beleaguered fortress. On the 16th of June, just as the New England army and the fleet were about to make a combined assault both by land and sea, its commandant capitulated. This most noted exploit has been claimed by some New England writers as the work of the New England land forces alone. On the other hand, English historians treat it as a victory for the British fleet. The truth is that neither alone could have taken Louisbourg. At the time, however, the New Englanders complained that while the fleet got prize money in abundance, glory was all that fell to the army. Shirley, with much pride, came over from Boston to receive the keys of the captured fortress.

A French Fleet Shattered.—Elated with this success, the New England colonies made ready a large force for an expedition against Quebec, but the weak Newcastle ministry in England failed to send the promised fleet to support the enterprise. Shirley then planned a campaign against the French fort at Crown Point, but this, too, was dropped when news cause that a powerful fleet had sailed front France to recover Louisbourg, and capture Annapolis. This fleet, under the Duc d'Anville, was sufficiently powerful to have carried out all its designs, but a succession of Atlantic storms worked such havoc upon it that it reached the harbor of Chebueto (now Halifax) in a very badly shattered condition. The Duc d'Anville died suddenly, and his successor, despairing of accomplishing the object of their coming, committed suicide. De Jonquiere, to whom the command fell, had come with the fleet to replace Beauharnois as governor of New France, but, after another storm off Cape Sable had nearly completed the destruction of the fleet, he returned with the shattered rem-


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