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62   HISTORY OF CANADA.

articles which had previously been imported. The effect of the impetus thus given continued after the war closed. Population grew with increased rapidity along the St. Lawrence valley. In 1734, for the first time, one could travel in a wheeled cart from Montreal to Quebec. Agriculture and its allied industries—the manufacture of cloth from wool, hemp, and nettle fibre, tanning and ship-building—tended to the growth of a more settled population. Though fur was the chief article of export during all the years of French rule in Canada, and, indeed, for many years thereafter, a modest export trade grew up in fish, timber, wheat, and the plant called ginseng, then much in favor as a cure-all.

The Canadian Habitant.—There was no landlord class, as in France, to take the lion's share of the fruits of the habitant's labor. He paid no direct tax to the king. To the Church he had to contribute his tithes. The Catholic Church in Canada, however, was largely maintained from France, so that the tithe wag never during the French regime much of a burden upon the settler. He is described as essentially superior to the French peasant ; as honest, civil and obliging; as indefatigable in hunting, travel-ling and bush-ranging, but slow in tilling the soil. All writers of the time describe the Canadians as extravagant, particularly in dress. Very few could read or write. The seminary at Quebec and the nuns' schools at Quebec, Three Rivers and Montreal were the only regular educational establishments. The cures instructed the young of the parishes in their duty to the Church and the king. Beyond this the settlers had little means of acquiring knowledge.

No Self-government.—In government, neither seigneur nor censitaire had any part. New France was under the absolute rule of the French king, who, through the colonial minister at Versailles, gave directions in all matters to his officers in Canada. The governor, the intendant, the judges, and all lesser officials, were sent out from France. It was the settled policy of the French court that Canadians should not be allowed any share in the government of the country. There was hesitation, it is said, about appointing Beauharnois to the governorship, because his wife's relatives were Canadian. The most to which even a Canadian seigneur could aspire was the command of a western post or the leadership in a raid on New England. Even in


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