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the colony, and the fur trade again engrossed the whole energy of New France. The king drew a large revenue from this traffic, certain duties on spirits and tobacco forming his only other income from the colony. The right to collect all these revenues was from time to time farmed out to trading partnerships and companies, who paid a fixed sum for the privilege. To make sure that all furs should pass through their hands, their ships only were allowed to carry goods from Canada. This monopoly of export had naturally drawn with it the monopoly of import, and Canadians were


thus denied all share in commercial enterprise. Even agriculture went no further than the raising of such crops as the colony could itself consume. Little wonder, therefore, that settlement spread but lowly and that, to escape the monotony of life on the St. Lawrence, active men plunged into the fascinating freedom of the western fur trade.

An Improvement Takes Place. With Queen Anne's War (1703-1713) a change came. British cruisers cut off the colony's supplies, and Canadians were driven to make for themselves many


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