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HISTORY OF CANADA.   59

 

stands, to command the portage past the falls. A few years later (1725) a fort was erected at the mouth of the river, and armed vessels were built at Fort Frontenac to control Lake Ontario. To offset this movement of the French, a fortified trading post was built by the British at the mouth of the Oswego, which the French in vain incited the Iroquois to destroy. Oswego threatened to draw off from Montreal that portion of the fur trade from the north which was wont to come down from the Georgian Bay by way of the Toronto portage, and to meet this danger a post was established at Toronto on the north shore of the lake.

The Lake Champlain Region.—After de Beauharnois became governor, the French in 1731, by a brilliant movement, advanced their frontier into New York by fortifying Crown Point on Lake Champlain—always a post of danger, as one may judge from its French name, Pointe a la Chevelure (Scalp Point). There was much angry correspondence about these matters between the officials of the rival colonies. In Europe, however, not much attention was paid to what were deemed trivial disputes. The governors on both sides were enjoined to keep the peace and to let the Indians harass the new posts. The Oswego post excepted, the advantage of position was gained by the French. Their weakness was that the garrisoned trading posts had no settlements to support them.

New France Secures the West.—Still farther west the French during these years materially strengthened their position. Detroit slowly grew into a settlement. To-day, along the east shore of the river are many descendants of the French pioneers who at that time migrated, some from France and some from the banks of the St. Lawrence, to this western post. On the upper Mississippi was another settlement around Fort Chartres, while, toward the mouth of the river, Louisiana gradually acquired stability. A famous Canadian, Le Moyne d'Iberville, had founded this colony in 1700 ; his brother, Le Moyne de Bienville, was long its governor. Before the middle of the century there was a complete chain of posts—fortified trading stations with small garrisons under officers experienced in Indian diplomacy—all the way around from Quebec to Louisiana. From these, adventurous voyageurs, coiffeurs de bois, and officers with a leaning toward exploration, pushed up the rivers which empty into the Mississippi from the


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