Previous The History of the Dominion of Canada (1897) Next



closed this war. If by it England gained less in Europe than her brilliant successes in the field should have secured to her, in America her gains were narked. The French abandoned all claim to the Hudson Bay region. The Five Nation, or Iroquois, Indians were acknowledged to be British subjects. Acadia was wholly given up. Newfoundland was ceded, with a reservation, however, of certain fishing privileges on a portion of the coast. The Island of Cape Breton (Isle Royale), then entirely uninhabited, was left to France without conditions, and she proceeded at once to plant a fortress upon it. Isle St. Jean (now Prince Edward Island) was also left to her.



Rival Claims in America.—In Europe, England and France remained at peace for thirty years after the Treaty of Utrecht. In America, during the same period, they were constantly on the verge of war. The able officers to whom the government of New France was entrusted were fully alive to the situation. Their policy had at least the merit of consistency, while their English rivals had almost as many different policies as there were colonial governments. De Vaudreuil, governor of New France during Queen Anne's War (1703-1713), remained in office for twelve years after its close. On his death in 1725, de Beauharnois became governor, holding the position until 1747. Their one object of foreign policy was to push forward the frontier line of New France as far as possible, and so prevent the spread of British rule in America. To this end they interpreted the Treaty of Utrecht as ceding to the British under the name of Acadia only the western end of the Nova Scotia peninsula. What is now New Brunswick and much of what is Maine they claimed to be still French territory. To shut the British out of the west, they claimed the whole interior of the continent from Quebec to the mouth of the Mississippi. To make good this claim they proceeded to occupy with their fortified trading posts the entire chain of water communication. To the north the same policy was pur-

Previous The History of the Dominion of Canada (1897) Next