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beaver-hunting grounds, modestly described as embracing the entire region south of the great lakes.westward to the Mississippi.

Virtual Peace in the West.—De Callieres died in the spring of 1703, just as the wear known in America as "Queen Anne's War," and in Europe as the " War of the Spanish Succession," fairly opened. In America this war was carried on mainly in the east—by the French against New England, and by the English against Acadia. De Callieres had received instructions not to trouble New York, but to make war on the New England villages by means of the Abenaki tribes. His succltor, de Vaudreuil, was instructed to pursue the same line of action. There was another reason for the virtual truce between Canada and New York. An extensive contraband trade was growing up between the fur traders of Montreal and Albany. The cheap goods of the English made this illicit traffic more profitable to the French than their own lawful trade. Even the governors of New France were accused of making profit out of it. The Iroquois shared in it and the Albany traders, too, found it lucrative. Thus, on both sides, there was an influence potent for peace between New York and Canada, while Acadia and the New England settlements were experiencing all the horrors of war.

Raids on New England Settlements.—The Abenaki tribes, naturally uneasy at the spread of English settlement in Maine, were encouraged to harass the frontier villages. The Acadian Indians also took part in these attacks, and the governor, de Vaudreuil, sent to head their war parties some of the most noted of the Canadian partisan leaders. These frontier raids continued with "little variety and little interruption" all through Queen Anne's War. The details, however, belong more particularly to the history of the New England States. So hard to catch were the raiding bands that direct reprisal was difficult.

New England in Revenge Attacks Acadia.—On Acadia the avenging blows fell. Villebon had just made arrangements to remove the garrison from Nashwaak back to Port Royal when, in 1700, death cut short his career. Villieu, who succeeded to temporary command, carried out the removal, and the St. John River region was for thirty years abandoned to its aboriginal in-habitants. In 1704 a Massachusetts force under Colonel Church ravaged the Acadian posts from Penobscot around to the settle-

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