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52   HISTORY OF CANADA.

Montreal, and with much speech-making and many wampum belts the Iroquois, the French, and the tribes of the west joined in burying the hatchet. The Iroquois, now much reduced in fighting strength, were never again very f-,rmidable. In the subsequent wars between the French and the British, they played but a secondary, though often cruel, part.

CHAPTER VIII.

QUEEN ANNE'S WAR.

De Callieres.—After Frontenac's death de Callieres secured the governorship of New France. He had been the local governor at Montreal, and in zeal for the colony he has been described as second only to Frontenac. There was now a short breathing space in the conflict between France and England. De Callieres took advantage of it to make more secure the foothold of France in the west. He saw that the effort to concentrate settlement on the St. Lawrence by refusing licenses for the western fur trade was merely causing the coaoreors de bois to seek other markets. They would go down the Mississippi to Louisiana, or, worse still, to the English at Albany. In spite therefore of much opposition, de Callieres managed to get the half-hearted consent of the king to his plans for western extension.

Detroit Founded.—In 1701 La Mothe-Cadillac, who had been in command of the garrison at Michillimackinac, founded Detroit in order to intercept the flow of the fur trade toward Albany. Up to this time Michilliinackinac, haunt of courevrs de bois and chief Jesuit mission in the west, had been the centre of the fur trade of the upper lake region. The founding of Detroit was against the interests of the older post ; and the people of Montreal, most of whom lived by the traffic in furs, were also averse to the project, as it would draw off some portion of their trade. The new post was nevertheless established, and was named Fort Ponchartrain, after the colonial minister at Versailles. To offset this French advance the English quietly procured a grant from the Five Nations (as they usually styled the Iroquois) of their


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