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50   HISTORY OF CANADA.

ment of the western posts and the cancellation of all trade licenses. The decree was, however, soon withdrawn. Its effect would have been, as Frontenac pointed out, to throw the western tribes into the arms of the British traders from Albany.

Acadia and New England—Border War.—After Phips' capture of Port Royal (1690), Acadia was allowed to fall quietly into the hands of Villebon, an able Canadian whom Frontenac sent to take charge of the war against the New England settlements. To avoid a repetition of the disaster which had overtaken his brother Meneval, Villebon built a fort at Nashwaak well up the St. John River, opposite the site of the modern city of Fredericton. From this safe retreat many war parties of mingled French and Abenakis were despatched against New England. There is a strange monotony of horror in the story of these raids upon scattered villages and isolated farm-houses. Women and children were frequently the only victims. Frontenac, to his credit be it said, offered his savage allies a ransom for prisoners, and as these border wars went on this more humane policy had a marked effect. As a bulwark against these attacks, the New Englanders built a strong fort (Fort William Henry) at Pemaquid, but even this was captured and razed to the ground in 1696. By way of reprisal an expedition was sent that same year to capture Villebon's stronghold at Nashwaak, but the leaders quarrelled, and Villebon with little difficulty succeeded in driving off the attacking force. What with war vessels both French and English, with privateers and pirates, the coasts of Acadia were thoroughly patrolled (luring these years, and settlements and fishing stations suffered from numerous raids.

Hudson Bay.—The history of the Hudson Bay region during this period has been described as a bewildering story. The Hudson's Bay Company had built a fortified trading post, Fort Nelson, at the mouth of Nelson River. To the south, on James' Bay, were three other posts, Fort Albany, Fort Hayes and Fort Rupert. A rival company—La Compognie du Nord—had been organized in Canada, and to it Louis YIV. had granted a monopoly of the trade on Hudson Bay. Posts were established to intercept the Indian canoes on their descent to the English forts. The rivalry was keen and not always peaceful, and in 1685 the Canadian company finally determined to expel the English intruders by force


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