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was a source of endless corruption. The chief centres of this trade were Jemseg, about fifty miles up the St. John, and Penobscot. Ensign de L'Abadie, of the Carignan-Salieres regiment, established himself at Penobscot, married the daughter of an Indian chief, and became a leader of much influence among the tribes of this region. His fur trade was extensive, and he is said to have amassed an enormous fortune. As Baron de St. Castin, the New England settlers learned to know him to their cost. After Grandfontaine's death (1673) corruption ran riot at Port Royal. The local governors monopolized the fur trade, sold brandy to the Indians, and demoralized the garrison. Instead of preventing the New Englanders from trading upon the coasts of Acadia, these officers illegally sold them trading licenses at high prices. Meneval, who took office in 1687, was governor of Acadia when Frontenac returned to New France. His instructions were to propagate religion, put down the cooreurs de bois, and stop the carrying on of the coasting trade by foreigners. There seems to have been a spasmodic interest taken in Acadia at this time, but it scarcely went beyond these energetic instructions.



England and France at War.—In 1688 James II. was dethroned, and William of Orange became King of England. In the next year began the war with Louis XIV. of France, which, with but slight intermission, lasted until the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. James II. had been anxious to stand well with Louis XIV., whose aid he had expected in his contest with the Protestants of England. He had, therefore, instructed Dongan, the governor of New York, to avoid giving offence to the. French. Now there was open war, and all this would be changed ; the more aggressive the English governors in America, the more sure would they be of official favor. In America the contest was threefold—between Acadia and New England, between Canada. and New York, and, thirdly, for supremacy on Hudson Bay. It was Frontenac's task to check the English advance at all these points, east, west and

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