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44   HISTORY OF CANADA.

them. Some indeed were afterwards taken to France to become galley-slaves.

The Massacre of Lachine.—This outrage and the attack upon the Senecas so incensed the Iroquois confederates that they at once prepared to take vengeance. In their first dismay at the display of force they did, it is true, send an embassy to make peace. But a wily Huron chief, Kondiaronk, or "The Rat," was shrewd enough to see that, if peace were made, his tribesmen would be, as before, left to the mercy of the Iroquois. Ile there-fore waylaid and attacked the embassy, pretending that he did so at the instigation of the French governor. The Iroquois, enraged, began once more to infest the St. Lawrence valley. In 1689, after an August storm, a band of these fierce braves descended in the darkness upon Lachine and massacred many of its defenceless inhabitants. Many more were carried away captive. Montreal, expecting an attack at any moment, was almost paralyzed with fright. The troops in garrison were badly handled, and the Iroquois were allowed to get safely away. In a spirit of cruel bravado they tortured some of the captives on the south shore of the river, in full view of friends at Lachine who were powerless to aid. Then they scattered in small bands, infesting the country in every direction. At this crisis Frontenac was once more sent out to Quebec as governor of New France.

Growth of Acadia.—Of the many immigrants who carne to New France, only some sixty were sent to Acadia. When Grandfontaine received this region from Temple in 1670, the total population was 441, including the garrison at Port Royal. The adult males were probably not more than one hundred. Around Port Royal was the only real settlement, the stations on the gulf shore being mere fishing and trading posts. Very soon, however, other settlements were bean on the Basin of Minas and at Chignecto, and by the year 1686 the population of Acadia had doubled. The settlers were kept busy dyking the marshes and tilling the rich soil thus reclaimed from the sea, and these years were with then years of quiet progress. Large portions of Acadia were granted in seigneuries by Frontenac and his immediate successors, but in most cases these grants were afterwards revoked or abandoned by the adventurers to whom they had been made.

Mercenary Governors.—The fur trade, here as in Canada,


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