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42   HISTORY OF CANADA.

Colbert and his successor Seignelay were deluged with complaints. At this time, in order to keep the fur trade in lawful channels—that is to say, to bring all furs to the great mart of Montreal or to the lesser one at Three Rivers—the death penalty had been decreed against all who traded in fur without a license. Even this, however, failed to bring the coo rears de bois to the regular life of the settlements. It was charged against the governor that he was carrying on a lucrative traffic in furs from Fort Frontenac, and that he prosecuted only those coureurs de bois who were not in his own service. There were, in truth, two warring factions among the fur traders. The one was headed by the governor, and numbered among its members La Salle, Tonty, and that most noted of coureurs de boil, du Luth, after whom Duluth, at the head of Lake Superior, is named. The other comprised the merchants of Montreal and the neighboring seigneurs, and was sup-ported by the bishop and the intendant. To end the feud, both Frontenac and Duchesneau were recalled in 1682.

La Barre.—La Barre, who succeeded to the governorship, is described as a rapacious old man. In comparison with him, Frontenac, in spite of his illicit trading, was "a model of official virtue." La Barre became head of the faction which had been opposed to Frontenac, and La Salle fared badly at their hands. Fort Frontenac was seized while he was on his memorable trip (1682) to the mouth of the Mississippi. Tonty, who was in command on the Illinois, was displaced by an officer friendly to the ruling faction. La Barre and his friends wanted to monopolize the fur trade of the upper lakes. In order that it might not be interrupted by the Iroquois, who Were again becoming trouble-some, these fierce warriors were allowed to wage war upon the more southern allies of France, the Illinois and Miamis.

English Claim to the Iroquois Country.—During La Barre's time, Dongan, governor of New York, claimed the whole country south of the lakes as British territory. When La Barre boasted of the chastisement in store for the Iroquois because of their renewed hostility, Dongan warned them of the intended raid. But his messenger assumed rather too high a tone with the con-federates, who were very jealous of any suggestion of dependence, and in 1684 they made peace on their own account with La Barre. The terms of this peace, however, were se humiliating to the


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