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36   HISTORY OF CANADA.

Military Settlement.—After the successful termination of de Tracy's campaign against the Iroquois, the Carignan-Salieres regiment was disbanded. With a view to forming a bulwark against further invasion, the soldiers were settled in large numbers around Montreal upon seigneuries on the St. Lawrence and along the Richelieu River, granted to officers of the regiment. Many towns in that locality were named after these officers—Sorel, Chatnbly, St. Ours, Varennes, Vercheres, Berthier, and many others. Very few of them ever resided on their seigneuries ; nearly all returned to France. Many well-known families, how-ever, in the Province of Quebec are descended from the soldier settlers of these early days. The less warlike peasants were settled on seigneuries lower down the St. Lawrence and around Quebec. So rapid was the innnigration that the population increased from 2,000 in 1663, to nearly 10,000 by the year 1680. Owing to European wars Louis XIV. was unable after 1672 to spare his subjects from France, and immigration rapidly fell off.

The Seigneurial System.—The system adopted to advance settlement was a mild form of feudalism. Although many of the grants made by the Hundred Associates were revoked by the king, the seigneurial system was continued. Louis XIV. desired to create a Canadian noblesse, but without the oppressive privileges enjoyed by the same class in old France. To make up the required number, patents of nobility were from time to time conferred upon men of mark in the colony, to whom seigneuries were granted to be held of the Crown upon the tenure of faith and homage. They, again, were to receive as tenants all who would settle upon their seigneuries and perform the duties arising from the relation of seigneur and eensitaire (landlord and tenant).

System of Settlement. The grants to the censitaires were usually of a narrow strip fronting always on the river and running back sometimes as much as two miles. Near Montreal and along the Richelieu the danger of the situation compelled the colonists to congregate in palisaded villages around the manor-houses of the seigneurs. Elsewhere the habitant naturally preferred to live on his own land and as near as might be to the river, for many years his only highway. Thus were formed those long settlements known as " cotes," which to-day give to the banks of the St. Lawrence below Montreal the appearance of an endless village.


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