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tance through all the subsequent wars between the French and the English.

De Courcelle Meets the English.—Early in 1666 de Courcelle made a preliminary raid upon the Mohawk valley. He entered it too far to the east, and found himself, at the village of Schenectady, face to face with the English, and had to retire without striking the intended blow. The English had taken New Nether-lands from the Dutch in 1664. The Treaty of Breda (1667) after-wards confirmed them in their possession. They called the country New York in honor of the Duke of York, afterwards James II.

The Iroquois Humbled.—Under better guidance, de Tracy descended on the valley later in the season with a force of about eleven hundred men, burned the Mohawk villages, one after another, and destroyed their crops. Dismayed at this martial display and threatened by famine, the Mohawks joined with the western confederates in humbly seeking peace. With much ceremony and many wampum belts a solemn treaty was made at Montreal the following summer (1667), and for twenty years thereafter New France was left in comparative quiet.

The Great Immigration.—During this period New France received its greatest immigration. The seminary of St. Sulpice had already sent out many colonists for Montreal and its vicinity. Of the French seigneurs, Giffard was almost the only one who had made any effort to bring in settlers ; he had placed a few on his seigneurie of Beauport, just below Quebec. The increase of population which now took place was almost entirely due to state-aided immigration. The young king, Louis XIV., and his minister Colbert entered into the work with commendable zeal. The new colonists came, some from Paris, but more from those north-western and western provinces of France to which Canada was already indebted for its somewhat scanty population. Not many families came out ; but, to make up for this, bounties were offered in New France on early marriages. Fathers with unmarried daughters were fined, and bachelors were made uncomfortable by being denied trading licenses. Peasant girls were sent out by the shipload, and very amusing stories are told of the rapid way in which they were provided with husbands upon reaching Quebec. Apparently an earnest and successful effort was made to get good girls.

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