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32   HISTORY OF CANADA.

took objection to the description of the territory to be surrendered, and in this way managed to enjoy his monopoly until 1670, when he reluctantly gave up possession to a French officer, Grandfontaine. Seven years before this time the Hundred Associates, as we have seen, had surrendered their charter. Henceforward Acadia, as part of New France, was to be governed directly from Paris.

Other Early Settlements in Acadia.—Between Canada and the post at the mouth of the St. John, through what is now New Brunswick, lay the primeval forest, broken only by scattered Indian villages. Medoctec, on the St. John, was the chief fastness of the Malacites of this region. Out on the gulf shore were the trading and fishing posts of Nicholas Denys, who for many years carried on an active traffic. At the mouth of Miramichi Bay was another trading post, established as early as 1642. To this spot, in 1672, came a number of French settlers from St. Malo. There was also in early times a small French settlement on the Bay of Chaleur, near the modern town of Bathurst. The total white population of Acadia in 1670 did not exceed five hundred.

CHAPTER V.

TALON (1665-1672).

Governor, Intendant, Bishop.—Under the new system of Royal Government the three most important persons in New France were the governor, the intendant, and the bishop. The governor occupied the position of highest dignity. He was the official head of the colony, and through him all negotiations with the Indian tribes and with the English colonies were conducted. He was usually, too, in command of any military force there might be in the colony. In addition to the governor-in-chief there were also local governors at Montreal and Three Rivers. After 1678 the governor of Acadia also held his commission from the governor at Quebec. The intendant now appears for the first time in New France. His full title was "Intendant of Justice, Police and Finances." He may be called the king's business manager for the province. Upon him, more perhaps than upon any other officer, the welfare of the colony depended. The head of the


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