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HISTORY OF CANADA.   29

New France. Laval University is a standing monument of his generosity. '

The Liquor Traffic.—Another cause of dispute between Laval and the governors was the question of selling liquor to the Indians. The white man's "fire-water" had already begun its deadly work among the native tribes. The fur traders deemed it a necessary part of every canoe-load of supplies sent into the interior. The Jesuits looked upon the traffic as the devil's most potent weapon for the ruin of their missions through the moral degradation of their flock. Laval took strong ground against the traffic. Church and State (the latter represented by the fur traders) were thus in violent collision, and the governors were forced into opposition to Laval's policy. A very violent earth-quake in 1663 was interpreted as a sign of Heaven's anger at the sins of the colony.

The Colony in Danger.—The Iroquois at length became a menace to the very existence of the colony. The habitants complained that the company neglected to provide any proper defence against their skulking war parties. Pierre Boucher was sent by the settlers to France to lay before the king the state of the colony. Laval, too, went home to advocate a change. At this time there was much interest taken in France in the Jesuit missions ; the " Jesuit Relations "—a series of letters written by the brave priests of the order from the scene of their daily toil—were much read, and the feeling grew strong that the Iroquois must be put down.

New France Made a Royal Province.—The result of it all was that in 1663 the Hundred Associates were obliged to surrender their charter. New France was made a royal province, to be governed thenceforward as the provinces of Old France were governed, directly from the king's palace. After thirty years under the rule of the Hundred Associates the population of Canada did not exceed 2,000, of whom not more than five hundred were real habitants. Through fear of the Iroquois, even this scant population was gathered closely around the trading centres—Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal. The king therefore deter-mined to send out a sufficient military force to put an end, once for all, to Iroquois aggression.

A New Colony in Acadia.—Meanwhile stirring events were


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