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26   HISTORY OF CANADA.

merchant Dauversiere. With other kindred spirits they planned a town to be known as Ville Marie de Montreal. Here, in honor of the Holy Family, a hospital, convent, and seminary were to be built, and around this religious establishment a settlement was expected to grow up. The leader of the expedition was the soldier Maisonneuve, who continued to be for many years the governor of Montreal and its brave defender. The Hundred Associates looked upon this enterprise with little favor. They thought it a scheme to rob them of part of their fur trade. Montreal, however, had influential support in France, and soon acquired weight in the affairs of the colony.

La Compagnie des Habitants.—Until 1645 the Hundred Associates' trade monopoly was in reality the monopoly of some eight merchants living chiefly in France, who had come to the help of the company in its early days when the war between France and England had brought it to the verge of bankruptcy. Complaint being now made to the king that no colonization was taking place, he ordered that the monopoly should be given up to the people of the colony. Thereupon certain Canadian traders, agents of the old company and others, formed a combination (1645), and by calling themselves "The Habitants' Company" (La Compagnie des Habitants), secured control of the fur trade. In their hands it still continued a close monopoly. The Hundred Associates, moreover, still remained lords of the soil of New France, and still received a share in the profits of the fur trade. In this same year (1615) the first Canadian council was formed, to assist the governor in carrying on the affairs of the colony. The inhabitants of Quebec and Three Rivers were, for a time, represented in this council by their syndics, but this step toward popular government was very soon retraced, and the council became the mere mouth-piece of the company.

The Huron Mission Attacked.—During all these years the Iroquois were the relentless foes of the French. They infested the St. Lawrence valley and entirely cut off at times the fur trade with the Hurons and Algonquins of the upper Ottawa. Their war with their Huron kinsmen was carried on with varying success. Upon the whole, however, the balance inclined very clearly to the side of the Iroquois, who, in 1649, determined to close in upon the Huron country and put an end to the war at one stroke. At


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