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22   HISTORY OF CANADA.

the mouth of the St. John River, in what is now New Brunswick, Fort St. John had been built. It was the centre of the fur trade of the district watered by the river and its tributaries. Miscou, at the entrance to the Bay of Chaleur, was the main fishing station. The sovereignty of France, however, was not unquestioned. England pressed her claim to Acadia, and in 1621 James I. granted it all to William (afterwards Sir William) Alexander, under the name now borne by part of it—Nova Scotia. Wide powers of government were also conferred, but for many years the lord of this wide domain was content to send out an annual trading expedition. With a view to aid this enterprise the order of Nova Scotia Baronets was established. The price of the title was a liberal subscription to the scheme of colonization. In 1628 Kirke's fleet, on its way to Tadoussac, landed a number of Scotchmen near Port Royal, and for some time the Scotch settlement and a French fort (St. Louis) near Cape Sable existed side by side.

New France Restored.—During this war between France and England, the first fort on Cape Breton was built by the English as part of Sir William Alexander's enterprise. It was almost immediately captured by the French and demolished. With the Peace of St. Germain-en-Laye (1633), New France, including Acadia, was restored to the French king. The English king received in return the promise that some £10,000 of arrears of his wife's dowry should be no longer withheld !

The Last Days of Champlain.—Champlain's life-work was nearly done. He returned indeed to Quebec in 1633 as governor for the Hundred Associates, built a fort at Three Rivers (1634), and set on foot plans for further western exploration. His health, however, failed and he asked for his recall. Before his successor could be named a kindly fate closed his eyes in death on Christmas Day, 1635, while he was still governor of that New France to which his life had been devoted.


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