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HISTORY OF CANADA.   21

house of Notre Dame des Anges on the meadows near the mouth of the St. Charles close to Quebec. This the Iroquois braves actually attacked in 1622, and only with difficulty were they beaten off.

The Hundred Associates.—The great Cardinal Richelieu was now the ruling spirit in France. The Huguenots had broken into open rebellion, and in 1627 Richelieu was besieging their great stronghold, Rochelle. In gamp before that city a new plan was devised for the government of New France. The exclusion of the Huguenots was decreed ; none but Catholics were to be admitted to the colony. Upon this condition the soil of New France, with full power of government and a monopoly of trade, was granted to the " Company of New France," usually known as the Hundred Associates.

England Captures the Colony, 1629.-For some years the Hundred Associates were not able to take possession of their domain. Charles I. of England took up the Huguenot cause and declared war against France. A great naval force sent to relieve Rochelle fared disastrously. Better fortune followed the fleet sent out under David Kirke in 1628 to take possession of New France. Sailing up to Tadoussac, he sent a courteous summons to Champlain to surrender Quebec. Though the colony was nearly starved and its puny fort but a poor defence, Champlain put on a bold front and sent so determined a message back to Kirke that he refrained that year from attacking the place. Off Tadoussac, how-ever, he met a powerful French fleet, which had been sent out by the Hundred Associates with supplies and colonists for Quebec. In the battle which followed Kirke was victorious, capturing many of the ships and destroying the rest. Satisfied with his booty he sailed for England. Quebec, reduced to feed on roots, dragged out a miserable winter ; and when Kirke returned next year (1629) Champlain in despair surrendered the colony. Its total population at this time scarcely reached one hundred, so blighting had been the effect of the monopoly. For the next three years Quebec was occupied by an English garrison, who made much profit out of the fur trade during their stay and gained some knowledge of the regions to the west.

Rival Claims in Acadia.—In Acadia, meanwhile, fishing and the fur trade had been actively carried on by the French. At


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