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HISTORY OF CANADA.   17

sumptuously as if in Paris on the fish and game with which the district abounded.

The Colony Abandoned.—With the spring of 1607 bad news came ; de Monts' monopoly had fallen before the attacks of the angry merchants of St. Maio. As the profits of this monopoly were the sole support of the colony, the colonists had perforce to abandon Port Royal and return to France. In 1610, however, Poutrincourt again came out to Acadia with a fresh supply of colonists, who found the old buildings still standing and the Indians delighted at the return of the French. Port Royal once more became the scene of much activity until, in the summer of 1612, its prospects were again rudely blighted. -England claimed all this region by virtue of its discovery by the Cabots more than one hundred years before ; and now Samuel Argall, from the colony lately established on the banks of the James River in Virginia, uprooted Port Royal as an encroachment on British soil. Poutrincourt in despair abandoned the task of colonization. His son, however, and a few of the colonists remained in Acadia, where they carried on for some years a trade in furs with their Micmac friends.

Champlain Founds Quebec.—Meanwhile de Monts had secured a fresh monopoly for one year on condition that Champlain should plant a colony on the St. Lawrence as a base for further exploration westward. At the mouth of the St. Charles, where Jacques Cartier had first wintered more than seventy years before, Quebec, oldest of American cities, was founded in 1608 under the shadow of Cape Diamond on the narrow strand between rock and water. The name " Quebec " signifies a strait, for here the St. Lawrence pours its rapid flood through a contracted channel between Cape Diamond on the north and the rocky heights of Point Ldvis on the south. Down at Tadoussac rival Basque and Spanish fishermen fought with the French for a share in the fur trade. Champlain had scarcely landed his colonists at Quebec before he discovered that some of his amen were plotting to kill him and to hand the colony over to the Spaniards. The ringleader of the plot was hanged, and his chief accomplices were sent to France to expiate their crime in the galleys. The winter of 1608-1600 was one of extreme severity, and scurvy so thinned the ranks that out of twenty-eight men only eight survived until spring.

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