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north had resorted for fish and fur. But his ambition went far beyond the mere making of maps of known regions ; his ever-cherished hope was to find the long-sought passage through to

China. On his first voyage to

Canada in 1603 Champlain made a survey of the river as far up as Jacques Cartier had ventured over sixty years before. Stadacona was gone, Hochelaga had vanished, and Indians of Algonquin stock roamed over the country which formerly the Huron-Iroquois had ruled from their palisaded towns. Champlain heard from these Algonquins vague stories of the streams and lakes beyond the rapids of La-chine (Sault St. Louis). But, although he was delighted with

the region through which he passed, he made no attempt on this occasion to establish a settlement.

Acadia Founded.—Meanwhile a French noble named de Monts had secured a monopoly of the fur trade. His scheme of colonization was planned for Acadia (Acadie), by which name Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and a great part of the State of Maine were for many years known. Champlain was again sent by the king with the expedition, which was led by de Monts in person. There were also on board others of the French noblesse, besides artisans, laborers and clergymen, both Catholic and Protestant, for the colony was to be founded on the principle of religious freedom. Along the southern shore of what is now Nova Scotia, a trading-ship in command of one Rossignol, trading in breach of de Monts' monopoly, was taken as lawful prize, and to this day the name of the unlucky captain appears upon the map of Nova Scotia. Poutrincourt, one of the gentlemen of the expedition, was particularly pleased with the scene which lay before the ship's company in Annapolis Basin (called by them Port Royal), and' he persuaded de Monts to grant to him: the surrounding country.

The colony itself, however, was first planted on the rocky island



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