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served to convey ideas when this could not be done by word of mouth or appropriate gesture. Wampum belts, however, were their official documents, by means of which communication between tribes was carried on. In earlier years a wampum belt was made of many-colored shells sewn together, often with extreme skill and nicety. Afterwards, cheap beads from Europe took the place of the shells. These belts varied in width, and were often many feet in length. By the arrangement of the beads a meaning was given them. Every savage embassy carried its message of peace or war portrayed upon a cluster of wampum belts. Treaties were thus preserved, for, as has been said, each clause and almost each sentence of every treaty was punctuated by one of these belts. Men skilled in their interpretation stood high in honor among the Indian tribes. X



Renewed Efforts Toward Colonization.—With the return of peace to France toward the close of the sixteenth century, public attention was again turned to the New World. Henry IV., better known as Henry of Navarre, determined that another effort should be made to colonize New France, and to that end he offered a monopoly of the fur trade to anyone who would undertake to plant a French colony there. The first attempt to establish a settlement was made (1600-1601) at Tadoussac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, to which spot the Montagnais Indians long resorted, even from the shores of Hudson By. But the rigor of the Tadoussac winter prevented any permanent European settlement there, and the place became a mere summer trading-post.

Champlain.—In 1603 an expedition was sent out to find, if possible, a suitable site for settlement farther up the St. Lawrence. With this expedition went one who has been well called the Founder of New France—Samuel Champlain. He was first of official explorers after Jacques Cartier, and by his published narratives and charts he soon made known to Europe the geography of that New France to which for so many years the traders of the

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