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HISTORY OF CANADA.   13

his best when hunting. Upon the war-path he was cruel, tomahawking, scalping and torturing with fiendish ingenuity. A stoic fortitude when himself tortured was about his only heroic quality. In his own village among his own clansmen he spent his time in gambling, story-telling, or taking part in some rude feast. In his domestic life the Indian was not without virtues, and his squaw and papooses were treated with a somewhat rough and careless kindness. To his tribe he was usually faithful, though to his foes false

INDIAN VLLLAGE, WITH TOTEM POLES, BRITISH COLUMBIA.

and crafty. Indian religion was purest superstition, peopling forest, stream and air with supernatural beings, both good and evil. Every manifestation of nature was the work of some particular deity. Of one God over all he seems to have had no idea, and his notion of heaven was of a happy hunting-ground where departed spirits would have full enjoyment of every sensual and savage desire.

Wampum Belts.—As already stated, the Indians knew not the art of writing. Rough pictures, drawn on the bark of trees,

Picture

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