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12   HISTORY OF CANADA.

of the more southerly tribes of New England and a few in Acadia, the whole of this Algonquin group lived entirely by the chase. Their dwellings were mere temporary wigwams, easily put up and easily abandoned. To gorge in summer and starve in winter seems to have been their usual lot. In consequence of the furious enmity of the Iroquois, the Hurons had been forced into alliance with the Algonquin tribes to the north and north-east of the Huron country. To these the River Ottawa (then called the River of the Algonquins) was the great highway by which the furs of these northerly regions were brought to the rendezvous at Montreal or to Three Rivers. X

Western Groups.—Beyond the great lakes were various groups of Dakotah stock. On the head waters of the Mississippi were the Sioux, a group of fierce tribes sometimes called the Iroquois of the Plains. North of these, in what is now Manitoba, were the Assiniboels. Farther west, the various tribes of the Crees hunted the buffalo over our north-western prairies. The Chippewyans occupied the more northerly region around the Great Slave Lake and Lake Athabaska. Beyond the Rockies were numerous tribes, forming a group to which, of late years, the name Mongoloid has been given to denote their likeness to the Mongolians of northern Asia. Many years, however, were to elapse before Europeans came into contact with these western groups.

The Esquimaux.—On our Arctic slope, living in snow-built huts, are the simple but picturesque Esquimaux. Through the opening up of the Hudson Bay region they became well known early in our history. Being of a very peaceful disposition, they offered no opposition to European exploration and settlement. Their stout, fur-clad figures, their dog-trains, and the "blubber" (walrus fat) on which they live, have become familiar to us through stories of Arctic adventure.

Character and Habits.—To the early Europeans the Indian was not an attractive figure. They describe him as-of unclean habits and without morals. Master of woodcraft, he was seen at

and north of the Ottawa, and Nipissings around the lake of that name. To the west, at the outlet of Lake Superior, were the Ottawas and Ojibwags. Down the western shore of Lake Michigan were many tribes, Foxes, Sacs, Meno,nenees, li'innebagas. The Illinois and Mitt Isis through Michigan and southern Ohio completed the circle. The name Algonquin is sometimes given to a single tribe on the upper reaches of the Ottawa, but it belongs properly to the entire group.


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