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Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain, passed in 1520 through the straits which bear his name, thus opening a western way to the Orient and a route by sea to the Spanish possessions on the Pacific coast of North America. In 1537 California was discovered by Cortez, and Spanish captains explored its coasts.4'

Early Voyages Northward.—The great English navigator, Sir Francis Drake, visited this region in 1578-1579. Inspired by love of booty and hatred of the Spaniards, he plundered and burned their cities, and took and rifled their galleons. He then sailed along the coast from the Spanish possessions northward as far, so some claim, as Queen Charlotte Islands and called it all New Albion. Drake's success inspired other English adventurers, notably the famous Cavendish, who in 1587 followed Drake's course around the Horn, and again ravished the " Spanish Main." But, with the exception of the voyage (1592) of Juan de Fuca, a Greek pilot in the service of the Spanish viceroy of Mexico, to the straits which bear his name, no authentic record remains of any visit to what is now the coast of British Columbia prior to Captain Cook's third voyage in 1778 ; so that for many years to come attention may be confined to the Atlantic coast and the progress of discovery and settlement there.



Indian Tradition Vague.—The history of the Indian prior to the discovery of America rests on mere tradition. To him the art of writing was unknown. Even for what took place between Cartier's visits and the end of the sixteenth century we have only vaguest legend. From the year 1600 onward, however, we have records, more or less trustworthy, (14 the various conflicts between the European and the Indian in the different regions into which settlers, fur traders and explorers pushed their way.

Eastern Groups.—Two main groups, speaking languages radically distinct, were found by the earliest northern colonists. These were the Algonquin and the Huron-Iroquois, the latter so named from its two most important members. In each of these

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