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8   HISTORY OF CANADA.

English, Spanish and Portuguese fishermen also plied their calling there. In the opening months of the year sometimes as many as two ships a day would sail from French ports for the fishing grounds, and several hundred vessels of various nationalities might be counted at one time in some of the harbors of refuge along the Newfoundland shore. Before the close of the century the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia and the shores of the Bay of Fundy had also become fairly well known to these hardy fishermen, who, in imitation of the Indians, called the region ticadie.

The Fur Trade Opened.—Gradually there grew up a traffic in furs with the Indians whom these fishermen met along the coast from Belle Isle to the Bay of Fundy, and on the shores within the gulf. From as far south as the Potomac the Indians came to the fishing regions to exchange their peltry for gaudy trinkets from Europe. Ivory, too, from the tusks of the walrus was much sought after. The trade was very profitable, and bitter hostility was shown toward all who attempted to procure from the king a monopoly of it. Even Cartier's nephew was forced to surrender a monopoly granted him in 1588, under which the Cartier family carried on a fur trade far up the St. Lawrence. The knowledge gained by the fishermen and fur traders did not, however, find its way to the map-makers of Europe. Until the close of the sixteenth century, Jacques Cartier's narrative, with its accompanying charts (since lost), was the sole basis of those curious maps of the St. Lawrence gulf and river region which have come down to our time.

England's Oldest Colony.—Ever since the time of the Cabots, England had claimed Newfoundland as her own, and had exercised a mild protectorate over the fishing stations there. In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert took formal possession of the island for Elizabeth of England, basing her claim upon its discovery by the Bristol navigator eighty-six years before. Sir Humphrey was lost on the return voyage.y'

The Pacific Coast.-Meanwhile, to the south, Spain had been pushing her search for the Southern Seas. In 1513 Balboa crossed the isthmus of Panama and, first of Europeans, looked out upon the waters of the Pacific Ocean. In 1518 Mexico was discovered, and three years later Cortez overturned its ancient civilization and made it a Spanish vice-royalty. Magellan, a


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