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at this time much occupied in Italian wars. While he and his nobles were thus engaged to the south-east of his kingdom, the fishermen of the north-western coasts were free to pursue their calling in peace, and the fisheries of the Banks soon became an established industry. English and Portuguese fishermen, and fishermen from the Basque provinces lying around the south-east-ern angle of the Bay of Biscay, joined iii this pursuit. The history of Canada during the sixteenth century is but the story of the toil, year after year, of the fishermen who frequented its shores.

Fishing stations and harbors of refuge were established. Various places on the coast of Newfoundland still bear the names then given them. The Bretons gave their name to a headland of one of the islands, and the island itself is now known as Cape Breton. On one old map the new region is quaintly described as "The New Fonde Londe quhar men goeth a-fisching."

Early Knowledge of the St. Lawrence.—Within the Straits of Belle Isle was the fishing station of Brest, and before long the shores of the gulf behind Newfoundland—which we know


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