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CANADIAN WAR CAMPS   253

purposes, while at Toronto winter-quarters of exceptional convenience were found in the capacious Exhibition Buildings—permanent structures of brick, steel, and concrete which had many advantages. Here during the cold weather of 1914-15 some 4,500 men were concentrated under the command of Major-General Lessard. The outdoor drill and route marching in the frosty days gave the men a good hardening, and by spring several battalions were beginning to have the swing of veterans. A curious effect of this outdoor life was found on occasions when entertainment of any kind was provided for the men in the theatres or music halls of the city. After half an hour or so in the superheated air required for an ordinary civilian audience, the soldiers would begin to cough. The unfamiliar temperature had an uncommonly irritating effect upon the throat. Frosty air was not troublesome.

Aside from the ordinary drill routine a special lecture course was provided. Some of the topics considered were Administration, Operations by Night, Defence and Rear-guards, Engineering Service on the Field, Patrols and Patrolling, Tactics, Transportation, Topography and Map Reading, Military Law and Military History, Camps and Sanitation. As in the summer camp the arrangements at Exhibition Park for preventive sanitation were most satisfactory. From November 24th, 1914, to February 1st, 1915, there had been no deaths, though several cases of pneumonia developed. One death on February 6th from spinal meningitis stirred the medical officers to renewed exertions and an epidemic which threatened was happily averted. On February 8th and March 20th, route marches through the city streets were witnessed by many thousands of interested but silent and serious citizens.

Meanwhile authorization had been given for the enlistment of 50,000 additional men, and it was clear to the Government that all the more convenient Militia properties would be required. Instead of concentrating


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