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to the propagation of principles than to the collection of patriotic funds, turned their attention to the material needs produced by the war, and raised large sums for war relief of all kinds, while the W.C.T.U. largely extended its work in military camps.

Hundreds of new societies sprang up sporadically to meet war needs under a multitude of appropriate names —Patriotic Leagues, Kitchener Clubs, Knitting Guilds—rendering valuable assistance to the societies which were organized to administer (as well as to collect) funds and material.

These patriotic enterprises generally represented a re-arrangement rather than a new enlistment, of workers, although the formation of "Battalion Auxiliaries," which banded together the women folk of both officers and men of some particular battalion for mutual encouragement and for combined work for their own men, introduced an altogether new alignment of women workers.

The continued evolution of new needs as the war passed from one stage to another, rendered necessary a parallel development and readjustment of voluntary auxiliary effort. The formation of great training camps throughout Canada afforded scope for the provision of canteen and recreation tents, club houses, and rest rooms; and the work was extended more widely when wounded men began to return from overseas. In this work there were many willing volunteers, but it ultimately passed generally into the hands of the Young Men's Christian Association, which organized a new department, recognized by the military authorities as responsible for providing social life for the men, both in training and on active service. The remarkable success of their efforts called forth a hearty and generous response from the public, who recognized the value of an organization which could supply decent places of recreation and wholesome entertainment for young and untried troops. In three years, the Y.M.C.A.'s Red Triangle became almost as well known as the Red Cross as a sign denoting an expres-

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