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methods was the raising of funds through the collection and sale of "waste" of all kinds, varying from simple "junk" to valuable heirlooms.

Under these circumstances it was inevitable that there would be some effort to exploit public generosity for private gain, and in 1917 the War Charities Act was passed making it necessary for all organizations operating as War Charities to be incorporated and registered or to operate only under permit of a duly registered society, and imposing penalties on persons and societies appealing to the public as War Charities except under these conditions.

It is natural to turn from this survey of the methods employed for raising funds to enquire by what organizations this work was accomplished. The agencies through which appeals for service and contributions reached the public fall naturally into two classes. In the first, we would include those societies with their branches which were called into existence by war for such special service. In this class would be reckoned the Patriotic Fund Association and the Canadian Red Cross Society. In the second class would be included organizations, not specifically intended for war relief purposes, which under-took "patriotic" work for the period of the war, such as the Imperial Order of Daughters of the Empire, the Women's Institutes, and practically all women's existing organizations.

Of the first class, little need be said here. Canada was speedily covered by branches of the Red Cross and Patriotic Fund with the specific duty of representing locally the aims and activities of these societies. On these fell the chief responsibility of making their work and needs known to the public, and of collecting the major part of the necessary funds. After four years of war, the Red Cross could boast of some twelve hundred chartered branches and thousands of unchartered auxiliaries, almost all of which had sprung up since the declaration of war.

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