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156   DAYS OF PREPARATION

the rank and file. The former are allotted the more comfortable quarters and obtain somewhat better food and clothing. The strictest surveillance, looking to the prevention of escape, is maintained, each prisoner being required to answer three or more daily roll calls. At the same time there is an absence of everything approaching close confinement, to which no prisoner of war may be condemned except under circumstances of necessity and for violation of rules.

Every consistent effort is made to ensure health and comfort both of body and mind. Unlimited access to the open air is allowed, most of the prisoners spending the entire day out of doors within whatever space may happen to belong to the camp area. Gardening and games, including tennis and football in summer and skating in winter, are permitted. In the case of the officer class, squads are at intervals allowed beyond the confines of the camp under escort and under parole, for purposes of exercise and recreation, though not in villages, towns, or cities. Every station has a hospital where ordinary illnesses are treated, but the more serious cases are transferred to the regular institutions, all charges, of course, being borne by the Government. Altogether a consider-able sum has been disbursed in medical treatment for prisoners, including among others a number committed to hospitals for the insane. In addition, the tedium of confinement is relieved in various ways. The Y.M.C.A. has established classes in each camp for education purposes, the teachers being selected from among the prisoners, and the Association supplying superintendents and directing the courses of study. Needless to add, the prisoners have enjoyed the privileges of free delivery of letters and parcels from friends, and of the free exercise of their religion including the right of access at stated periods of their chosen ministers. The camps have been of course regularly visited and inspected by representatives of the enemy governments, the Swiss Consul-


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