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THE ALIEN ENEMY IN CANADA 155

 

citizen of the other. It is only under the reservation that a state at war may undoubtedly take any step that may be necessary for the control of persons whose presence or conduct menaces its safety, that interference of any kind is possible. "The object of the internment," says the Manual of Military Law, "is solely to prevent prisoners participating further in the war. Anything, therefore, may be done that may seem necessary to secure this end, but nothing more. Restrictions and inconveniences are unavoidable, but unnecessary limitation of liberty, unjustifiable severity, ill-treatment, and indignities are forbidden."

With regard to the buildings for detention purposes, gaols or prison buildings may not be used under the Rules. In the Canadian case, the character of the buildings has varied from place to place. The prevailing type of accommodation in the remoter districts where most of the camps were set up was modelled on the Canadian lumber camp. First a bunk-house, or series of bunk-houses, was erected, of log or frame construction, the bunks lining the walls, the heating supplied by stoves, and the whole made "healthy, clean, and decent," as demanded by the regulations. Around these were grouped the subsidiary buildings, with a liberal supply of open space to permit freedom of movement,—all being surrounded by barbed wire under the guard night and day of sentries whose boxes formed the final out-posts of the establishment. Such, in the fourth year of the war, was the camp at Kapuskasing. The camp at Amherst, however, consisted of a made-over factory, that at Morrissey of what had once been a hotel, while at Vernon a commodious building with ten acres surrounding was pressed into the military service. In a temporary summer camp which was established at Valcartier, the prisoners were lodged for the most part under canvas.

Inside the camps, a strict regime prevails. The prisoners are divided into two classes, the first consisting of officers and their equivalents socially, and the second of


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