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THE ALIEN ENEMY IN CANADA 153

 

camps were erected at Kapuskasing, Ontario, and Spirit Lake, Quebec, on the line of the Transcontinental Railway, and before the expiry of 1914 establishments were in operation at Halifax for the Maritime Provinces, at Brandon for Manitoba, at Lethbridge for the Prairie Provinces, and at Vernon and Nanaimo for British Columbia. Border stations at Niagara Falls and Sault Ste. Marie were also set up, being in the nature of out-stations or receiving points rather than detention camps proper.

In 1915 a new development of the work occurred with the opening at Amherst, Nova Scotia, of a camp for the detention of certain prisoners of war who had been for-warded by the Imperial authorities from Jamaica and Bermuda, consisting largely of Germans captured at sea. Purely Canadian camps were also opened in 1915 at Beauport, P.O., and at Banff, Edgewood, Fernie, Monashee, and Revelstoke in British Columbia. Later still a camp was established at Jasper, Alberta.

Many of the establishments above listed were in operation for a short time only, as an effort was made from the outset to reduce expenditures by amalgamations and readjustments as soon as the relief of the initial pressure rendered this possible. The Fernie camp was moved to Morrissey, the Monashee camp to Mara Lake, and the Revelstoke camp to Field, during this process of readjustment. Moreover, with the marked increase in industrial activity which began to develop early in 1915, the extent of the internments very rapidly decreased. As already stated, a large number of the prisoners had been apprehended on the score of lack of work and destitution rather than for any action of a hostile character, and, when the general industrial situation revived, the basic reason for their detention vanished. The policy was accordingly adopted of releasing all such prisoners as soon as steady work could be assured them. The first pronounced call for men came from the coal mines and the railways, but the rebound of manufacturing


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