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THE ALIEN ENEMY IN CANADA 151

 

United States. One further measure with regard to the alien enemy, taken nearly a year after the outbreak of the war, may also be noted. Many aliens of enemy nationality had under the original proclamation retained or found work in manufacturing establishments, where they were brought into common employment and often into competition with Canadian or Ally workmen. The animosities excited as the war went on led to in-creasing friction in such cases, so much so that rioting and the destruction of life and property became a danger. As a preventive measure, the Minister of Justice was given authority to segregate and intern aliens of enemy nationality in cases of the kind, subject to release at any time consistent with the public safety. The pro-vision was merely an addendum to the original policy to meet a particular contingency.

It is, of course, in the actual procedure of the internment operations that interest centres, as the final application of the enactments above outlined, and the remainder of this article will be devoted to a brief description of their salient features. They constitute one of the most interesting phases of Canadian activity in connection with the war, involving as they do an issue of international character at once intricate and delicate, and an absolutely new departure in Canadian administrative and military experience.

The work of registration on the new and enlarged basis followed at once upon the proclamation of October 28th. The first locality to be specially designated was Montreal, but the cities of Sydney, Regina, Edmonton, and Calgary were named a few days later, Fort William and Winnipeg being added early in November, and Toronto, Ottawa, Brandon, and Victoria within the next three weeks. Within a short time the work was completed, though the offices at Montreal, Edmonton, Fort William, and Winnipeg were still in operation in the third year of the war. A final return and analysis of all the registrations has not yet (June, 1918) been made, but it may be stated


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