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146   DAYS OF PREPARATION

nearly synonymous in the case of the Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian, and Turkish residents. In other words nearly all representatives of these races in Canada were actually born in Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, respectively. Not so, however, in the case of those of German stock, of whom, as above stated, only 39,577 were actually born in Germany, though the Canadian population contains 393,320 of German origin. The explanation lies again in the earlier infusion of the German element, so that a much larger proportion of those of German origin are now "Canadian-born."

In one connection, however, racial origin becomes merged with birthplace from the present point of view. Among the three hundred and odd thousands of "American-born" that were recorded in the Canadian Census of 1911, no less than 45,374 were of German and 1,804 of Austro-Hungarian origin. The racial allegiance of these might be said to have re-emerged when they changed their country of adoption, especially as it has been frequently observed that the second and third generation of an alien element show more attachment to the country of origin than does the actual emigrant. In any case they might naturally be regarded as suspects in the present case, especially where they failed to take out naturalization papers—a category which includes approximately thirty per cent. and nearly nine thousand males of twenty-one years and over.

Thus at the opening of the war, probably sixty thousand alien enemy nationals were in the Dominion, counting only those of the male sex of military age. Including their dependents and all others of alien enemy origin born out of Canada, the total reached perhaps 200,000. By provinces the Austrians were shown chiefly in Manitoba (37,731), Saskatchewan (35,482), and Alberta (21,112), and to a less degree in Ontario (15,555); the Germans were chiefly in Ontario (15,010), Saskatchewan (8,300), Alberta (6,012), Manitoba (4,294), and British Columbia (3,104). Winnipeg had the largest colonies of


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