THE ALIEN ENEMY IN CANADA 145
in countries outside the British Empire. To this total the United States was the largest single contributor with 303,680; but it is significant that the very next place on the list was occupied by Austria-Hungary with 121,430, whilst Germany stood fifth (Russia and Scandinavia intervening) with 39,577. Turks to the number of 4,768 and Bulgarians to the number of 1,666 brought the grand total of persons born in enemy countries and resident in Canada in 1911 to 167,441. Most of these were comparatively recent arrivals; of the foreign-born as a whole nearly ninety per cent. have come during the past quarter century; in the case of Austro-Hungarians less than two per cent. arrived before 1890. The German inflow, however, is rather an exception to this rule, well over thirty per cent. having landed prior to 1890. Another general feature having a bearing here is the marked preponderance of males to females which the foreign-born population contains, namely, 626 males in every thousand persons, compared with 527 males in every thousand of Canadian birth. Of Austrian-born there were 176 males to every 100 females; of German-born, 144; of Bulgarian-born, 162; and of Turkish-born, 283.
The above leaves naturalization out of account, and an immigrant who has accepted naturalization is removed, of course, ipso facto, from the categories both of alien and enemy. Approximately fifty-nine per cent. of the German-born have become naturalized. The Turks, likewise, have "taken out papers" to the extent of forty per cent. of their numbers. The Bulgarians on the other hand have adopted citizenship very sparingly—to the extent of only 4.3 per cent. Altogether we had 81,248 non-naturalized aliens born in enemy countries in Canada in 1911, of whom 45,756 were males twenty-one years old or over. Add, say, eight or ten per cent. to these totals to represent arrivals subsequent to 1911.
The place of birth of a person must not be confounded with his racial origin. In point of fact the' two are