series of experiments carried on under Colonel Cantley's direction, the Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Company succeeded in producing a quality of basic steel which met the exhaustive tests of the military authorities in London; and an insuperable barrier to Canadian participation in the munitions business on any large scale was thus removed. The speed with which the Nova Scotia Steel Company acted was a matter of admiration to all those acquainted with the difficulties of the business. Sir Sam Hughes is responsible for the statement that shells of Canadian origin, doubtless the product of the "Scotia" works, were delivered to the British authorities before any shells whatever were produced in England by commercial organizations—that is, outside of the Government arsenals, and that "not one shell was produced in any commercial institution in the United States until long after Canada had been producing enormous quantities." Another Canadian corporation which contributed largely towards the tremendous task of solving the initial problems of the shell industry was the Canadian Pacific Railway, whose great plant at the Angus Shops, Montreal, was speedily turned into an arsenal and experiment station of wonderful efficiency. The Ogden Shops at Calgary shortly followed suit. The Dominion Steel Corporation not only undertook much metal work but the by-products of its coke ovens supplied a much-needed component of the new high explosives, in the shape of trinitrotoluol. Other concerns which sooner or later adventured into the new field with success were Canada Foundries & Forgings, . Steel of Canada, Ontario Steel Products, Canada Cement, National Steel Car, Canadian Locomotive, Dominion Bridge, Canadian General Electric, Massey-Harris, and Canadian Westinghouse; but for that matter by the end of 1915 every plant in Canada capable of handling (or being adapted to handle) any form of steel manufacture was busy on the universal task.