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plants, and the volume of British orders, had been steadily on the increase since the day of the first order.

While these orders included clothing, leather goods, and various items of equipment, by far the larger part of them consisted of shells and explosives. Not only the whole of the steel and iron industry of the Dominion was kept busy on them, but in several instances corporations not associated with the steel industry adapted their plants or erected new plants for shell-making—the chief example of this type of enterprise being the Canada Cement Company, whose executive head was a former steel man.

The steel industry of Canada was a comparatively young one, which had shown an astonishing growth during the first fourteen years of the twentieth century. The production of pig iron in Canada in 1900 was insignificant, a trifle of 87,500 tons, about two days' work for the present capacity of the furnaces of the Dominion. By 1913 it had risen to 1,023,973 tons, though it was still only about one-thirtieth of the output of the United States, and probably about 1% per cent. of the world's total production. The steel production of the year 1900 was still more negligible, being 23,954 tons; by 1913 Canada had reached an actual steel production not far short of a million tons, and in 1914 she possessed a nominal capacity of 1,500,000 tons. Yet before 1916 the Dominion's steel plants were being taxed to the utmost to turn out the amount of steel required for the munitions industry in Canada.

The growth of the steel industry during these years was not due to increased favours from the Government of Canada, for rather these were somewhat reduced. It was the direct consequence of a greatly increased demand for the product. In part due to the larger consumption of steel in structural materials and machinery for certain of the basic or secondary industries of the country, there is no doubt tha` this wonderfully rapid growth of the steel industry was caused mainly by the

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