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CANADIAN INDUSTRY   131

ment of the country during the preceding twelve or fourteen years.

During the earlier years of the National Policy the classes of industry extensively developed in Canada as a result of the protective tariff were those which catered to the standard consumptive requirements of a community which was mainly agricultural and not very wealthy. They included clothing in all its forms, house-hold textiles, household furniture, some small machinery, the necessary carts and other vehicles of a primitive community, structural materials on a small scale, and the tools of the simpler forms of industry. The whole output of the industries of Canada in 1890, according to the census (which did not err on the side of undue modesty), amounted to $368,700,000, of which $76,000,000 was food products (partly for export), $54,700,000 was textiles, $72,800,000 lumber and manufactures thereof (largely for export), $24,500,000 leather and products (chiefly boots and shoes), and less than $42,000,000 consisted of the products of steel and iron and all other metals. That is to say, the manufacturers of Canada at that time were engaged in turning out either the few primitive products (output of the farm, the forest or the fishery, with very little "manufacturing" superadded) which were suitable for export, or else the articles required in the domestic life or the simple trades of the home community. And this condition continued with no very great change until the census of 1900. During this decade the whole output of Canadian industry increased by only 30.47 per cent., and the great bulk of the addition was in the exportable commodities or the articles of individual consumption. The increase in the yearly output amounted to $112,000,000 a year, and of this nearly $50,000,000 was provided by foodstuffs, $13,000,000 by textiles, $10,000,000 by leather, and only $12,030,000 by all the metal trades combined.

During the decade 1900-1910 all this was changed, for in that period Canada began manufacturing not


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