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Supply. The answer was that the units required would be furnished complete with equipment and transport as requested, and ready to embark by the last week of September.

By September 3rd there were at Valcartier Camp 32,000 men, although only 25,000 had been called out. Across the river at Levis were the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, over 1,000 strong and chafing at the delay in embarkation. At Halifax was another battalion awaiting transport to Bermuda. At various stations throughout the Dominion were some six or seven thou-sand more men under arms. The volunteers for active service amounted to nearly two hundred thousand.

Now, in war, the "wastage of war" for officers and men was calculated to average seventy per cent. during the first twelve months of a campaign, which meant that during 1915, the field troops would require, in addition to their "first reinforcement," a further supplement of 12,000, or about 1,000 a month. That meant that by the end of 1915 some 36,000 (including Line of Communication Units) would have been absorbed by the "First Division." Already there were signs that the recruiting movement at that date was such as to give occasion for serious consideration. A Second Contingent was coming into being, but the exact form which it would take could not be foreseen. Another Division properly organized and self-contained was apparently an impossibility owing to the lack of field artillery and howitzers.

When the Canadian Expeditionary Force began to assemble at Valcartier it was intended that it should consist of 24,000 men, including a first reinforcement of ten per cent. and administrative units for duty on Lines of Communication. But officers and men far in excess of this total came crowding in, and—although many were weeded out—there remained a surplus which, as the best and simplest way out of the difficulty, it was determined to despatch to England with the rest of the Force. It was estimated that the total embarking

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