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CANADA AT WAR   35

It will be observed that the Parliamentary leaders were anxious to distinguish between the German people and their rulers, and to check racial prejudice against the Germans. As the war went on, racial feeling hardened. It was seen that the German people, misled by the plea that they were fighting in self-defense, and trained to obedience under despotic and military rule, stood behind their rulers. The distinction between Germans in their own country and Germans in Canada was not always clearly observed, and the task of those who sought to mitigate racial prejudice was difficult. Wherever Germans lived in Canada or in the United States, they paid to some extent the penalty of the crimes of their leaders in Germany, and the innocent sometimes suffered as well as the guilty.

This digression has interrupted the story of the work of Parliament, which it will be convenient here to resume. The regular 1915 session opened on February 4th; the mover of the address was Mr. W. G. Weichel of North Waterloo, a Canadian of German descent. He said that many Germans had left the Fatherland to escape the curse of Prussian militarism and military domination, "which has been weighing on Europe so heavily for many years." A second war grant was made, this time of $100,000,000; and now it was stated that the number of men whom it would be necessary to raise and equip was 100,000. In the three sessions: 1914, 1915, and 1916, the total of war grants was $400,000,000. It was explained by Sir Thomas White in his budget speech of February 11th, that most of the war expenditure will be met by borrowing; and this he justified upon the ground that the war was being fought largely to secure the undivided liberty and constitutional freedom of future generations. And it may be mentioned here that this policy was carried out, and that in the first two years of the war the public debt of Canada was increased from not quite $336,000,000 to more than $615,000,000. Some new taxation, however, was imposed. Proposals


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