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CANADA AT WAR   25

or humanitarian. In Canada as in England it was represented that there was danger not only to the British Empire but to civilization itself, and to free institutions all over the world. German militarism, German despotism, were freely denounced. Many readers of Canadian journals became familiar for the first time with the names of Frederick Nietzsche, Professor von Treitschke, and General von Bernhardi, who had fanned the flame of militarism in Germany. Anything like an accurate analysis of their teachings would be impossible here. The impression produced by quotations and abstracts from the writings of these men published in Canada was that of a Germany departing from its older, kindlier sentiments and its higher ideals, and poisoned by the advocacy of the ruthless use of brute force. The State becomes a monster, subject itself to no law, and exacting implicit obedience and idolatrous worship like Milton's Moloch :

"Horrid King besmeared with blood

Of human sacrifice and parents' tears,

Though for the noise of drums and timbrels loud Their children's cries unheard, that passed through fire To his grim idol."

It was pointed out, too, that German militarists were not content with describing war as a necessary evil, but justified it as a necessity of national development; "a biological necessity, the medicine of the human race, without which mankind would sink into ignoble sloth, and civilization would become a stagnant pool." As to the last, it should fairly be said the doctrine is not peculiar to Germany, and it is part of the accepted teaching of militarism everywhere. In Canada itself it has been declared that an age in which war has ceased would be "a golden age enjoyed by a spineless and emasculated race of beings, who have forgotten the meaning of the words courage, honour, and self-sacrifice."

Probably little would have been heard of these German preachings if the war had not illustrated the correspond-


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