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on our part, and of overruling protection on the part of the mother-country, and more a case of a hearty and cordial alliance. Instead of looking upon us as a merely dependent colony, England will have in us a friendly colony; to stand by her in North America in peace or war.

One of the first results of Confederation, therefore, was the removal of British regular forces from Canada and the strengthening of the Canadian Militia. The fleets, stationed at Halifax and Esquimalt, remained until early in the present century; their withdrawal is part of a later phase of Canadian history, and it was of course understood that the power of Great Britain on land and sea would be behind Canada if attacked.

Even after Confederation, however, Canada was a comparatively poor country to which no one looked as the source of armies to be used beyond seas. Ten years later, the revenue available for Federal purposes was only a little more than $22,000,000. The development of the country taxed all its powers. In the early eighties the task of building the Canadian Pacific Railway was regarded as almost too great for the young nation. Yet $25,000,000, the amount of the money grant to the Canadian Pacific Railway syndicate, then described as colossal, was only one-sixteenth of the war grants made by Parliament in the first two years of the Great World War. Until near the beginning of the twentieth century the progress of Canada was slow, but the tremendous growth during the ten or fifteen years before 1914 enabled her to participate in the war on so vast a scale.

A main cause for the conditions which prevailed in the earlier period was the condition of dependence to which Sir John Macdonald referred. More was heard then than now of danger arising on the North American Continent itself, and of a war beginning with an invasion of Canada. It was not from Europe that the attack was feared, but from the United States. The speeches made during the debate on Confederation are full of

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