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On August 1st, orders were issued for the mobilization of both French and German Armies.

From the day of the murder in Serajevo up to the actual outbreak of hostilities it became increasingly clear, precluding the slightest possibility of doubt, that behind all the apparent causes or alleged reasons for war, was the powerful, sinister figure of Germany, employing its virtual vassal as its agent to force upon the world the catastrophe for which it had been preparing with unfaltering purpose and tireless industry from the day the Franco-Prussian War ended. If the crime of Serajevo had not taken place to serve the dark purpose of Berlin, another excuse would readily have been found. The diplomatic wire-pullers who launched the war of 1870 from the basis of a forged telegram, would have experienced no difficulty in framing a "reason" for hostilities once they deemed the hour of opportunity had arrived. In Germany and the Next War, published by Bernhardi, a Prussian general, in 1911, one finds the following, which explains with utmost candour the true German attitude: "As soon as we are ready to fight, our statesmen must so shuffle the cards that France shall appear to be the aggressor."

The historical student who investigates the cause or causes of the World War, and seeks to place on the right shoulders the responsibility for it, must examine with care a hundred years of Prussian and German history.

In the history of the rise of Prussia to dominance first over her fellow German States, then over her neighbours, and after that over the Continent of Europe, one may find the "increasing purpose" that led to the plunging of the world into war on a scale and of a ferocity unparalleled in the history of the race. Prussia represents the spirit of modern Germany, and though one seeks to establish a distinction between that State and the rest of Germany, the difference at this time is more one of imagination than reality. Prussia has not merely

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