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262   MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA

boine river was wide open, and men bolting away over the bridge. The troops then marched in by this gateway, and took possession of Fort Garry after a bloodless victory. The Union Jack was hoisted, a royal salute fired, and three cheers given for the Queen, which were caught up and heartily re-echoed by a few of the inhabitants who had followed the troops from the village." Everything was in confusion about the fort, the breakfast things on the ex-President's table not yet cleared away, documents of all kinds, including his private papers, lying about, betokening a very hasty retreat. So ended ingloriously the Rebellion of 1870. But it had been an expensive affair for the young Dominion, Wolseley's Expeditionary Force alone costing $500,000. To guard against further trouble a Provisional Force was maintained in Manitoba from 1870 to 1877, when it was disbanded. It consisted of a battalion of rifles (300 officers and men) and a demibattery of artillery, and proved very serviceable.

Many years afterward, when he could look back upon a lifetime of most distinguished service, Wolseley had not forgotten the little campaign of 1870, or the men whom he led through the wilderness to Fort Garry. In his Story of a Soldier's Life he says:

"I can draw no distinction between the relative merits or the military value of the regular soldier and the Canadian militiaman who went with me to Red River; each had arrived at Prince Arthur's Landing with special at-tributes peculiarly their own, but by the time Fort Garry had been occupied each had acquired the military virtues of the other. What it is that a large army of such men under some great leader could not achieve, I, for one, know not."


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