242 MILITARY HISTORY OF CANADA
same time a sense of growing responsibility. This feeling was made tangible in the Militia Act of 1868, which in many respects represented a long step forward in the development of an effective defensive force. With a few subsequent amendments this is still the military law of the Dominion. The militia consisted of all the male in-habitants of Canada between eighteen and sixty, not exempted or disqualified by law, and being British subjects by birth or naturalization. In case of need the Crown was given authority to call out all male in-habitants capable of bearing arms. The militia was divided into Active and Reserve. The former consisted of three classes; Volunteer, Regular, and Marine. The first embraced corps raised entirely by voluntary enlistment; the second, volunteers, supplemented when necessary by men ballotted to serve; the third, seamen. The Reserve included all men not serving at the time in the Active Militia. The four original provinces were divided into nine military districts, and these subdivided into twenty-two brigade divisions, and again into regimental divisions; provision was also made for a Headquarters Staff. Annual pay-drill was provided for 40,000 men, for not less than eight or more than sixteen days annually. The militia could be called out in aid of the civil power. At the end of the year 1868 the nominal strength of the Active Militia was 37,170 of all ranks, divided as follows: Ontario, 21,816, Quebec, 12,637, Nova Scotia, 928, New Brunswick, 1,789.
To return to the Raid of 1870, nothing could have been better than O'Neil's preliminary arrangements. He had arms and ammunition for 15,000 men, and all that remained was to smuggle them quietly to the boundary, slip across before either the United States or Canadian Governments could get wind of his intentions, and seize strategical points in Canada. But there are spies and traitors in every camp, and the Fenian Brotherhood proved no exception to the rule. The Canadian authorities, instead of being caught napping, were kept