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FENIAN AND OTHER RAIDS   239

was also taken into commission for service along the western frontier, and was manned with British sailors from H.M.S. Aurora, then at Quebec. Shortly after-wards the Toronto Naval Brigade was transferred to the Magnet for service on Lake Ontario, and another detachment from the Aurora took its place on the Rescue. Each of these boats was protected with boiler plates and heavy planking, and equipped with Armstrong ship-guns, 9- and 12-pounders. The Wabuno was also armed for patrol duty on Georgian Bay; the St. Andrew and Watertown on the Upper St. Lawrence. The gun-boat Royal was fitted out at Montreal and sent up through the St. Lawrence canals. There were also at Montreal H.M.S. Rosario and the gun-boats Canada and Hercules. Altogether, whether on land or water, Canada was so well prepared for the Fenians that for the most part they had to content themselves with idle threats.

One slight episode on the Eastern Townships border calls for brief consideration. On the 2nd of June about 1,800 Fenians, under General Spier, had collected at St. Albans, Vermont. A day or two later 400 more arrived. These were all from New England, and formed a part of the "Right Wing of the Irish Republican Army." Spier had been promised 13,000 troops, with an ample supply of arms and ammunition. Only 2,200 turned up, and many of these were without arms, but he had to do some-thing to keep his men together. On the 4th, therefore, he led a force of 1,000 men over the boundary into Missisquoi County, and planted the green flag of the Brother-hood on the summit of Pigeon Hill.

When the Fenians crossed the border, Captain W. Carter, of the 16th Regiment, with about 100 volunteers, was in the neighbourhood of Pigeon Hill. As he was far outnumbered by the enemy, Carter decided to withdraw his men and await reinforcements. For this action he was subsequently officially reprimanded, and it is said that his troops "never forgave him for what they considered an exhibition of cowardice." It was more prob-


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